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Basketball Fouls

1- History & Object of the Game
2- The Essentials (Offense & Defense, Scoring, etc.)
3- Fouls
4- Court Diagram & Positions
5- Glossary of Basketball Terms


Common Referee Signals

Referees govern play and call fouls against players by blowing a whistle and gesturing to signal the type of foul. Most fouls are personal fouls called on the defense for illegally contacting an opposing player. Examples of personal fouls are pushing, tripping, holding, blocking, or contacting an offensive player with the body. Players are excluded from the game after committing five personal fouls and are said to have “fouled out.” Additionally, each personal foul counts towards a team foul. Teams are allotted a specified number of team fouls, usually six, before free-throws are awarded for non-shooting fouls, starting with one-and-one. Fouls committed while an offensive player is shooting the ball are called shooting fouls. Shooting fouls result in two free-throws for fouls during a field goal attempt, and three free-throws if the player is shooting a three-pointer. If the player is fouled during a shot and the shot goes in, the points count and the player is awarded one free-throw.

Although less frequent, personal fouls can also be called on the offense. Personal fouls on offensive players are most often called for charging, pushing off of an opponent, or setting illegal screens. More often, offensive players are called for violations, such as traveling, double dribble, carry over, shot clock violations, or three second violations, which result in a turnover.

Another type of foul, called a technical foul, can be called on a player or coach for unsportsmanlike conduct and results in the opponent receiving two free-throws and possession of the ball. Anyone who commits two technical fouls is excluded from the game.

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